Temporomandibular disorders: open or arthroscopic surgery?

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This review looked at surgical approaches for the management of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. Seven studies were identified of which 3 were randomised trials. Benefits for some outcomes were found with both open and arthroscopic surgery. However the available evidence is limited.

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Dental Implants: submerged implants have fewer failures than immediate loaded non-submerged implants suggests review

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While this new review has included 28 studies, only 6 were RCTs. They found that submerged dental implants had fewer failures than immediate loaded non-submerged implants. The relative risk of failure for immediately loaded compared to submerged implants = 1.78 (95% CI; 1.12 to 2.83).

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Digital dental models compare favourably with plaster models

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This review compared the accuracy of digital dental models with original plaster models. 16 studies were included and they concluded that digital models were and acceptable alternative to traditional plaster models.

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Xylitol gum reduced mutans streptococci transmission

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This review identified 5 trials reported in 11 publications and found that the chewing of xylitol gum by mothers significantly reduced transmission of mutans streptococci to their children. However the effects on caries were inconsistent.

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Mutans Streptococci: maternal-child transmission confirmed by review

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Thirty six studies were identified for this review of maternal-child transmission rates for mutans streptococci. Rates varied from 52.5% – 84.5% with a meta-analysis finding a cumulative event rate of 0.650 (95% CI; 0.565 to 0.726).

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Zirconium based dental restorations –available evidence limited

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While this review of zirconium restoration included 27 studies, only 5 were RCTs. Furthermore only 4 studies had more than 5 years follow up. Ten studies included fewer than 20 restorations, so while good survival data was presented, the results should be viewed with caution.

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Fluoridation and hypothyroidism- study suggests an association

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This cross-sectional study using secondary data and binary logistic models compared the hypothyroidism prevalence at general medical practice (GMP) level 
with fluoride levels in the drinking water. A positive association was identified although only a small number of confounders were adjusted for which suggest that further clarification is required.

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Congenital bleeding disorders and dental extractions

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This Cochrane review looked at the effectiveness of haemostatic regimens for patients with bleeding disorders. Two small trials involving 59 patients demonstrated the efficacy of antifibrinolytic agents acid in people with bleeding disorders having dental extractions.

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Air polishing- glycine powder has less potential for harm suggests review

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This review included 17 studies the majority (12) of which were in vitro; and all at risk of bias to greater or lesser extent. The results suggest that glycine powder air polishing had less potential for harm of oral hard and soft tissues than sodium bicarbonate powders.

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Oral piercings-tooth and gum damage common suggests review

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Twelve observational studies were included in this review which suggested that lip and tongue piercings increased the risk of gum and tooth damage . The relative risk for tooth damage with lip piercings was 1.33 (95%CI; 0.74 to 2.41) and 2.44 (95%CI;1.35 to 4.41) for tongue piercings.

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